Jessica Zhu, our award winning wartime correspondent reported on why Japan went to war!
The lives of women have been affected because the unfair treatment, and the Japanese authorities created brothels and ladies to volunteer as comfort women. 150,000 Okinawan men, woman, and children lost their lives during the nearly threemonths of fighting.
World War Two causes were numerous, They include the impact of the Treaty of Versailles following WWI, the worldwide economic depression, failure of appeasement, the rise of militarism in Germany and Japan, and the failure of the League of Nations.
The decision by Japan to attack the United States remains controversial. Study groups in Japan had predicted ultimate disaster in a war between Japan and the U.S., the Japanese economy was already straining to keep up with the demands of the war with China. However, the U.S. had placed an oil embargo on Japan and Japan felt that the United States' demands of unconditional withdrawal from China and non-aggression pacts with other Pacific powers were unacceptable. Facing an oil embargo by the United States as well as dwindling domestic reserves, the Japanese government decided to execute a plan developed by the military branch largely led by Osami Nagano and Isoroku Yamamoto to bomb the United States naval base in Hawaii, thereby bringing the United States to World War II on the side of the Allies. On September 4, 1941, the Japanese Cabinet met to consider the war plans prepared by Imperial General Headquarters, and decided:
What were the most important causes of WW2?
A prominent cause of World War II was the policy of appeasement adopted by the Western powers (primarily England and France) which rose directly out of the rise of Fascism in Central Europe. England and France allowed Germany and Italy to continue with their acts of aggression towards the communist parties in the hope that favoring Fascist powers would help weaken the Soviet Union.
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War, (1937–45), conflict that broke out when China began a full-scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory (which had begun in 1931). The war, which remained undeclared until December 9, 1941, may be divided into three phases: a period of rapid Japanese advance until the end of 1938, a period of virtual stalemate until 1944, and the final period when Allied counterattacks, principally in the Pacific and on Japan’s home islands, brought about Japan’s surrender.
What Started WW2? Military Causes
Although a variety of different factors caused World War Two, the main event and the trigged for what started WW2 was Germany’s invasion of Poland in September 1939.
Of course the invasion was preceded by decades of political conflict. The Treaty of Versailles, signed at the end of WW1, placed some very harsh restrictions on Germany, which created a feeling of resentment among the Germans. Due to the financial depression of the 1920’s, Germany simply did not have the funds to pay the reparation fees demanded by the treaty
Introduction of Great Depression
The Great Depression in the United States, which lasted from the end of 1929 until the early 1940's, was the worst and longest economic collapse in the history of the modern industrial world.
The Wall Street stock-market crash of 1929 began the Great Depression. The depression had horrible effects on the country. The stock market was in bad shape. Many factories closed or slowed production of all types of goods.Businesses and banks closed their doors, and farmers fell into bankruptcy. People lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and many depended on charity to survive. In 1933, at the worst point in the depression, more than 15 million Americans, one-quarter of the nation's workforce, were unemployed.
worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world, sparking fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory. Although it originated in the United States , the Great Depression caused drastic declines in output, severe unemployment , and acute deflation in almost every country of the world. Its social and cultural effects were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the Great Depression represented the harshest adversity faced by Americans since the Civil War.
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
Four factors played roles of varying importance. The stock market crash of 1929 shattered confidence in the American economy, resulting in sharp reductions in spending and investment. Banking panics in the early 1930s caused many banks to fail, decreasing the pool of money available for loans. The gold standard required foreign central banks to raise interest rates to counteract trade imbalances with the United States, depressing spending and investment in those countries. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act (1930) imposed steep tariffs on many industrial and agricultural goods, inviting retaliatory measures that ultimately reduced output and caused global trade to contract.
How did the Great Depression affect Japan?
As the Great Depression had a greater impact on the other side of the world, this still had a major effect on Japan. When the Great Depression hit the world this caused countries to no longer be able to import products from Japan, which is how Japan made up their economy.
In 1919, Japan was unhappy about the Treaty of Versailles, which took place in France, because French and British did not treat the Japanese as equal partners. The Great Depression also played an important role in Japan causing it to become angry and aggressive
The attack on Pearl Harbor happened from ('started on' is correct) December 7th, 1941. Our army and the US army had a battle on the island (Pearl Habor). This island is located in Hawaii on island Oahu. Our army had an unstoppable plan to attack the US island.
Hirohito was born on 1901 April 29th. When he was born, his grandfather was emperor. But his grandfather died when he was 11, and he became crown prince. In 1921, he visited Europe, being the first crown prince to travel abroad.
What happened during the invasion of Manchuria?
In September 1931, they claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway, and attacked the Chinese army. By February 1932, the Japanese had conquered the whole of Manchuria. Thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians were killed. The League sent a delegation to Manchuria to see what was happening.
What did America do when Japan invaded Manchuria?
What did the United States do in response to Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931? The United States sent General MacArthur to lead American troops in the Pacific. The United States publicly stated that they disagreed with Japan's actions. The United States sent the ship Panay to the coat of Japan
Why did Japan attack China?
During the Great Depression in the 1930s, Japan sought to solve its economic and demographic woes by forcing its way into China, starting in 1931 with an invasion of Manchuria.
Reasons for doing so were mostly the same reasons any empire invades others. Land, resources, population, prestige, sheer power - Japan needed or wanted it all. China was, and is, a colossus, a vast country of 500 million people. There are raw minerals to motorise the army, fuels to power Japan’s navy and air force, rice to feed Japan’s population. China was still in what would later be called the ‘century of humiliation’ - divided, at war with itself, enduring famine and floods.
The timing and severity of the Great Depression varied substantially across countries. The Depression was particularly long and severe in the United States and Europe; it was milder in Japan and much of Latin America. Perhaps not surprisingly, the worst depression ever experienced by the world economy stemmed from a multitude of causes. Declines in consumer demand, financial panics, and misguided government policies caused economic output to fall in the United States, while the gold standard, which linked nearly all the countries of the world in a network of fixed currency exchange rates, played a key role in transmitting the American downturn to other countries. The recovery from the Great Depression was spurred largely by the abandonment of the gold standard and the ensuing monetary expansion. The economic impact of the Great Depression was enormous, including both extreme human suffering and profound changes in economic policy.
Timing and severity
The Great Depression began in the United States as an ordinary recession in the summer of 1929. The downturn became markedly worse, however, in late 1929 and continued until early 1933. Real output and prices fell precipitously. Between the peak and the trough of the downturn, industrial production in the United States declined 47 percent and real gross domestic product (GDP) fell 30 percent. The wholesale price indexes lined 33 percent (such declines in the price level are referred to as deflation). Although there is some debate about the reliability of the statistics, it is widely agreed that the unemployment rate exceeded 20 percent at its highest point. The severity of the Great Depression in the United States becomes especially clear when it is compared with America’s next worst recession, the Great Recession of 2007–09, during which the country’s real GDP declined just 4.3 percent and the unemployment rate peaked at less than 10 percent .The Depression affected virtually every country of the world. However, the dates and magnitude of the downturn varied substantially across countries. Great Britain struggled with low growth and recession during most of the second half of the 1920s. The country did not slip into severe depression, however, until early 1930, and its peak-to-trough decline in industrial production was roughly one-third that of the United States. France also experienced a relatively short downturn in the early 1930s. The French recovery in 1932 and 1933, however, was short-lived. French industrial production and prices both fell substantially between 1933 and 1936. Germany’s economy slipped into a downturn early in 1928 and then stabilized before turning down again in the third quarter of 1929. The decline in German industrial production was roughly equal to that in the United States.
Causes of the decline
The fundamental cause of the Great Depression in the United States was a decline in spending (sometimes referred to as aggregate demand), which led to a decline in production as manufacturers and merchandisers noticed an unintended rise in inventories. The sources of the contraction in spending in the United States varied over the course of the Depression, but they cumulated in a monumental decline in aggregate demand. The American decline was transmitted to the rest of the world largely through the gold standard. However, a variety of other factors also influenced the downturn in various countries.
Great Depression, worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world, sparking fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory. Although it originated in the United States, the Great Depression caused drastic declines in output, severe unemployment, and acute deflation in almost every country of the world.
An economic depression is an extremely severe, long-term contraction in economic activity. In a depression, GDP annual falls more than 5% and unemployment is in the double digits. The 10-year Great Depression was the world's only depression.
The Great Depression transformed political life and remade governmental institutions throughout the United States, and indeed throughout the world. The inability of governments to respond to the crisis led to widespread political unrest that in some nations toppled regimes.
This reporter spoke to a Japanese citizen, which is called Isakodomi Yiko, when asked about what do you think about the daily in the time in great weather depression she replied'' the depression brought us hardship, homelessness, and hunger to millions''.
League of Nations
The League of Nations was the first international organization set up to maintain world peace. It was founded in 1920 as part of the settlement that ended World War I.
There had to be unanimity for decisions that were taken. Unanimity made it really hard for the League to do anything. The League suffered big time from the absence of major powers — Germany, Japan, Italy ultimately left — and the lack of U.S. participation.
What Was the League of Nations?
The League of Nations had its origins in the Fourteen Points speech of President Woodrow Wilson, part of a presentation given in January 1918 outlining of his ideas for peace after the carnage of World War I. Wilson envisioned an organization that was charged with resolving conflicts before they exploded into bloodshed and warfare.
By December of the same year, Wilson left for Paris to transform his 14 Points into what would become the Treaty of Versailles. Seven months later, he returned to the United States with a treaty that included the idea for what became the League of Nations.
Republican Congressman from Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge led a battle against the treaty. Lodge believed both the treaty and the League undercut U.S. autonomy in international matters.
In response, Wilson took the debate to the American people, embarking on a 27-day train journey to sell the treaty to live audiences but cut his tour short due to exhaustion and sickness. Upon arriving back in Washington, D.C., Wilson had a stroke.
Congress did not ratify the treaty, and the United States refused to take part in the League of Nations. Isolationists in Congress feared it would draw the United Sates into international affairs unnecessarily.
Origins Of The League Of Nations
The central, basic idea of the movement was that aggressive war is a crime not only philosophers against the immediate victim but against the whole human community Accordingly it is the right and duty of all states to join in preventing it; if it is certain that they will so act, no aggression is likely to take place. Such affirmations might be found in the writings of or moralists but had never before emerged onto the plane of practical politics. Statesmen and lawyers alike held and acted on the view that there was no natural or supreme law by which the rights of sovereign states, including that of making war as and when they chose, could be judged or limited. Many of the attributes of the League of Nations were developed from existing institutions or from time-honored proposals for the reform of previous diplomatic methods. However, the premise of collective security was, for practical purposes, a new concept engendered by the unprecedented pressures of World War I.
The 20 years of the League’s active existence fell into four periods: 1920–23, a period of growth, during which the League increased its membership and established its machinery but had little concern with the chief political problems of the time;1924–31, from the beginnings of reconciliation in Europe to the Japanese aggression in Manchuria, a period of relative stability;1931–36, from the Manchurian war to Benito Mussolini’s victory in Ethiopia and the formation of the Rome-Berlin Axis, a period of conflict during which the League was the main center of international affairs; and 1936–39, a period of defeat for the League, during which the Covenant was virtually abandoned.
League of nations
the League of Nations was an international diplomatic group developed after World War I as a way to solve disputes between countries before they erupted into open warfare, a precursor to the United Nations, the League achieved some victories but had a mixed record of success, sometimes putting self-interest before becoming involved with conflict resolution, while also contending with governments that did not recognize its authority. The League effectively ceased operations during World War II.
When World War II broke out, most members of the League were not involved and claimed neutrality, but members France and Germany were.
In 1940, League members Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and France all fell to Hitler. Switzerland became nervous about hosting an organization perceived as an Allied one, and the League began to dismantle its offices.
Soon the Allies endorsed the idea of the United Nations, which held its first planning conference in San Francisco in 1944, effectively ending any need for the League of Nations to make a post-war return.
Why did the League of Nations fail in Manchuria 1931-33?
After extensive research and a six-week stay in Manchuria (Northeast Provinces), the commission submitted its report in September 1932. It found both parties guilty, blaming the Chinese for their anti-Japanese propaganda and refusal to compromise but branding Japan as an aggressor. Japan, which had meanwhile created the puppet state of Manchukuo out of its new possessions, not only rejected the commission’s findings but also resigned from the League of Nations, thus removing itself from the sanctions of that international body and destroying any hope for reconciliation between the two nations. Friction between China and Japan continued until it resulted in all-out war in 1937
What is the weak League of Nations?
The Weakness of the League of Nations. The league of nations was created at the end of WWI to attempt to stop future wars. Since the league of nations did not have military power so it did not have an army to stop Germany in the early stages of Germany's aggression.
What was the League of Nations and why was it formed?
The League of Nations was an international organization that was formed soon after the first World War and existed from 1919 until 1946. Its primary goal was to encourage the use of negotiation and arbitration to prevent war and to settle international disputes.
What organization replaced the League of Nations?
After the end of World War II the United Nations Organization (UNO) was founded on October 24, 1945 to replace the flawed League of Nations. Its principal mission is to maintain world peace, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
There had to be unanimity for decisions that were taken. Unanimity made it really hard for the League to do anything. The League suffered big time from the absence of major powers — Germany, Japan, Italy ultimately left — and the lack of U.S. participation.
There had to be unanimity for decisions that were taken. Unanimity made it really hard for the League to do anything. The League suffered big time from the absence of major powers — Germany, Japan, Italy ultimately left — and the lack of U.S. participation
This reporter ask a Japanese commander Did the League of Nations prevent WW2?
He said ''The League of Nations was the first intergovernmental organization that was established after World War 1 in order to try and maintain peace. Unfortunately, the League failed miserably in its intended goal''
Rise of Militarism in Japan
Rise of Militarism in Japan. The period after the decline of Feudalism saw the creation of modern state with economic development and industry and military domination at home and rapid conquests and expansion with national disaster in Japan. The destruction of Japanese cities, the surrender of armed forces and foreign occupation and Japan’s war with China marked the end of the restoration period and beginning of new age of Japan Militarism.
The rise of the militarists
The notion that expansion through military conquest would solve Japan’s economic problems gained currency during the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was argued that the rapid growth of Japan’s population—which stood at close to 65 million in 1930—necessitated large food imports. To sustain such imports, Japan had to be able to export. Western tariffs limited exports, while discriminatory legislation in many countries and anti-Japanese racism served as barriers to emigration. Chinese and Japanese efforts to secure racial equality in the League of Nations covenant had been rejected by Western statesmen. Thus, it was argued, Japan had no recourse but to use force.
Aggression in Manchuria
The Kwantung Army, which occupied the Kwantung (Liaotung) Peninsula and patrolled the South Manchurian Railway zone, included officers who were keenly aware of Japan’s continental interests and were prepared to take steps to further them. They hoped to place the civilian government in an untenable position and to force its hand. The Tokyo terrorists similarly sought to change foreign as well as domestic policies. The pattern of direct action in Manchuria began with the murder in 1928 of Chang Tso-lin, the warlord ruler of Manchuria. The action, though not authorized by the Tanaka government, helped bring about its fall. Neither the cabinet nor the Diet dared to investigate and punish those responsible. This convinced extremist officers that their lofty motives would make retribution impossible. The succeeding government of Prime Minister Hamaguchi sought to curtail military activists and their powers. The next plots, therefore, were aimed at replacing civilian rule, and Hamaguchi was mortally wounded by an assassin in 1930. In March 1931 a coup involving highly placed army generals was planned but abandoned.
The Road to World War II
Each advance by the military extremists gained them new concessions from the moderate elements in the government and brought greater foreign hostility and distrust. Rather than oppose the military, the government agreed to reconstitute Manchuria as an “independent” state, Manchukuo. The last Manchu emperor of China, P’u-i, was declared regent and later enthroned as emperor in 1934. Actual control lay with the Kwantung Army, however; all key positions were held by Japanese, with surface authority vested in cooperative Chinese and Manchu. A League of Nations committee recommended in October 1932 that Japanese troops be withdrawn, Chinese sovereignty restored, and a large measure of autonomy granted to Manchuria. The League called upon member states to withhold recognition from the new puppet state. Japan’s response was to formally withdraw from the world body in 1933. Thereafter, Japan poured technicians and capital into Manchukuo, exploiting its rich resources to establish the base for the heavy-industry complex that was to undergird its “new order” in East Asia.
Events in China
In northern China, boundary areas were consolidated in order to enlarge Japan’s economic sphere. In early 1932 the Japanese navy precipitated an incident at Shanghai in order to end a boycott of Japanese goods; but Japan was not yet prepared to challenge other powers for control of central China, and a League of Nations commission arranged terms for a withdrawal. By 1934, however, Japan had made it clear that it would brook no interference in its China policy and that Chinese attempts to procure technical or military assistance elsewhere would bring Japanese opposition.
Japan on the defensive
After Midway, Japanese naval leaders secretly concluded that Japan’s outlook for victory was poor. When the fall of Saipan in July 1944 brought U.S. bombers within range of Tokyo, the Tojo cabinet was replaced by that of Kaiso Kuniaki. Kaiso formed a supreme war-direction council designed to link the cabinet and the high command. Many in government realized that the war was lost, but none had a program for ending the war that was acceptable to the military. There were also grave problems in breaking the news to the Japanese people, who had been told only of victories. Great firebombing raids in 1945 brought destruction to every major city except the old capital of Kyoto; but the generals were bent on continuing the war, confident that a major victory or protracted battle would help gain honorable terms. The Allied talk of unconditional surrender provided a good excuse to continue the fight.
Great Depression -
Wall Street Crash October 1929
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash that occurred in the fall of 1929. It started in September and ended late in October, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
What happened with the Wall Street crash?
On October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday hit Wall Street as investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. The next day, the panic selling reached its peak with some stocks having no buyers at any price. Japan's relatively small gains in the Russo-Japanese War and WWI, The seemingly easy wins of the wars of this period and finally of the Wall Street Crash. It is also due to the new government being founded by the militaristic samurai class, with the power given to the emperor by the shogun, during the Meiji Restoration period. Then Japan didn’t have money because England didn’t have money so Japan wouldn’t sell them silks then they wouldn’t have money
Impact of it on Japan
The 1929 New York Stock Exchange crash and the failure of important European banks plunged the entire world into an economic depression. Japan was hit especially hard. With practically no natural resources, the nation had to import oil, iron, steel, and other commodities to keep its industry and military forces alive.
The notion that expansion through military conquest would solve Japan’s economic problems gained currency during the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was argued that the rapid growth of Japan’s population—which stood at close to 65 million in `````1930—necessitated large food imports. To sustain such imports, Japan had to be able to export. Western tariffs limited exports, while discriminatory legislation in many countries and anti-Japanese racism served as barriers to emigration. Chinese and Japanese efforts to secure racial equality in the League of Nations covenant had been rejected by Western statesmen. Thus, it was argued, Japan had no recourse but to use force.
The notion that expansion through military conquest would solve Japan’s economic problems gained currency during the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was argued that the rapid growth of Japan’s population—which stood at close to 65 million in 1930—necessitated large food imports. To sustain such imports, Japan had to be able to export. The notion that expansion through military conquest would solve Japan’s economic problems gained currency during the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was argued that the rapid growth of Japan’s population— close to 65 million in 1930—necessitated large food imports. To sustain such imports, Japan had to be able to export.
This reporter spoke to a soldier ,who was in the Japan army ,and asked What was militarism role in ww2?he said ''Militarism was important in contributing to WWII. Hitler always appeared in military uniform and did not let the public forget that the German army did not lose in the field, but rather the civilian
|Source 1 Japan militarism in japan.com|